00 directional overcurrent relay The RXPE 40 is a static, single-phase, voltage- polarized ac directional overcurrent relay mo- dule which measures the component of current that has a phase angle equal to the designed characteristic angle. H�b```e`` These relays have earned a … Functions: 1 relay can perform various functions. Working Principle of Over Current Relay. Testing and maintenance of protective gear, Protection against surge … (1 relay can be used as over current only for under voltage we use another relay). 1. 3. Re. The output of pick-up control circuit 32 is supplied through a resistor 44 and a diode 46 to the reset control circuit 48. 0000001168 00000 n The control means 3 comprises a pick-up control circuit 32 in combination with a reset control circuit 48. Others have heretofore suggested that the reset action of overcurrent relays be delayed for various reasons. 3,413,496-Baude and British Pat. No effect of Gravity on operation of static relay. Download PDF Info Publication number US4255774A. Thus signal 17 is a train of undulating half cycles the amplitude of which is proportional to the negative phase sequence current. Fig: 1 Directional static overcurrent relay . A protective relay adapted to be coupled to an electric current circuit including electrical apparatus in order to protect said apparatus from overheating comprising: a. means for deriving from said circuit an input signal representative of the heating effect which a current in said circuit has on said apparatus; b. normally reset integrating means having an input terminal to which said input signal is suplied and an output terminal at which is developed an output signal having a magnitude that increases with time when the integrating means is operative; c. control means for enabling said integrating means to operate whenever the magnitude of said current exceeds a predetermined pick-up level, and for resetting said integrating means in delayed response to said current subsiding below said pick-up level, the time delay resetting action reducing said output signal at a predetermined substantially linear rate toward a quiescent magnitude near zero; and, thereby approximating the cooling characteristic of said electrical apparatus. Model overcurrent overcurrent or earthfault boards size † inst † inst † inst MCGG 22 14 MCGG 42 26 MCGG 52 38 MCGG 53 28 MCGG 62 36 MCGG 63 16 MCGG 82 48 Application The relay can be used in applications where time graded overcurrent and earth fault protection is required. Now, if we use a definite time relay to coordinate R 1 with fuse, the coordination. These developments have produced changes in the way they are applied from electromechanical (EM) relays and, further, offer many new features to provide greater utilization than previously possible. In this case the relay R 1 would have to backup the fuse. A solid state protective device is disclosed which protects electrical apparatus from heat damage due to overcurrents, particularly one which protects electrical generators from damage caused by heat due to excessive negative phase sequence currents. STATIC RELAYS A Static Relay Is A Relay Which Uses Solid State Components Like Transistors, Diodes Etc. Title: SLC 51E Static Overcurrent Relay Author: GE Multilin Subject: Instruction Manual Created Date: 3/7/2003 9:25:13 AM This relay has to be installed straight only and away from magnetic field. Referring now to the drawing, a relay embodying my invention is seen to comprise a combination of three basic "building blocks": condition responsive means 1, an electric energy accumulator 2, and control means 3. The Canadian Electrical Code permits 300% overcurrent on the primary for this option. 317/27R ... E. W. Kimbark disclosed a static overcurrent relay including a non-linear voltage modifying circuit using zener diodes or the like for modifying the DC voltage applied to a series RC circuit as a function of the amount of overcurrent. Directional time-overcurrent relay 1MRK 509 025-WEN Version 2.1 Replaces - 1MRK 509 025-WEN Page 2 ABB Network Partner AB Version 2.1 SETTINGS: All settings can be changed while the relay is in normal service. data:image/svg+xml;base64,PD94bWwgdmVyc2lvbj0nMS4wJyBlbmNvZGluZz0naXNvLTg4NTktMSc/Pgo8c3ZnIHZlcnNpb249JzEuMScgYmFzZVByb2ZpbGU9J2Z1bGwnCiAgICAgICAgICAgICAgeG1sbnM9J2h0dHA6Ly93d3cudzMub3JnLzIwMDAvc3ZnJwogICAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICAgeG1sbnM6cmRraXQ9J2h0dHA6Ly93d3cucmRraXQub3JnL3htbCcKICAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICAgIHhtbG5zOnhsaW5rPSdodHRwOi8vd3d3LnczLm9yZy8xOTk5L3hsaW5rJwogICAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICB4bWw6c3BhY2U9J3ByZXNlcnZlJwp3aWR0aD0nMzAwcHgnIGhlaWdodD0nMzAwcHgnIHZpZXdCb3g9JzAgMCAzMDAgMzAwJz4KPCEtLSBFTkQgT0YgSEVBREVSIC0tPgo8cmVjdCBzdHlsZT0nb3BhY2l0eToxLjA7ZmlsbDojRkZGRkZGO3N0cm9rZTpub25lJyB3aWR0aD0nMzAwJyBoZWlnaHQ9JzMwMCcgeD0nMCcgeT0nMCc+IDwvcmVjdD4KPHRleHQgZG9taW5hbnQtYmFzZWxpbmU9ImNlbnRyYWwiIHRleHQtYW5jaG9yPSJzdGFydCIgeD0nMTI1Ljk4MScgeT0nMTU2JyBzdHlsZT0nZm9udC1zaXplOjQwcHg7Zm9udC1zdHlsZTpub3JtYWw7Zm9udC13ZWlnaHQ6bm9ybWFsO2ZpbGwtb3BhY2l0eToxO3N0cm9rZTpub25lO2ZvbnQtZmFtaWx5OnNhbnMtc2VyaWY7ZmlsbDojM0I0MTQzJyA+PHRzcGFuPkZlPC90c3Bhbj48L3RleHQ+Cjwvc3ZnPgo=, data:image/svg+xml;base64,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, GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER, EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS, Emergency protective circuit arrangements responsive to undesired changes from normal non-electric working conditions using simulators of the apparatus being protected, e.g. The Static Network Is So Designed Them It Gives An Output Signal In The Tripping Direction Whenever A Threshold Conditions Reached. Contents. Fuse - Relay coordination requires a minimum 0.3 second time margin between the curves. relays. So long as the average magnitude of the input signal 17 applied to the same amplifier is less than a pick-up level established by this reference signal, the output of pick-up control circuit 32 will be negative with respect to ground and the diode 46 will block since its cathode potential is fixed at virtual ground. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Microcontroller based overcurrent relay, VPL 01 THEORY: Static relays are those relays which consist of electronic circuitry to develop all those characteristics achieved by moving parts in an electro-magnetic relay. di Musiani Franco & C. Siemens Ag, 1000 Berlin Und 8000 Muenchen, De. 108: OVERCURRENT RELAYS . 0000000786 00000 n A protective relay as defined in claim 6 in which said control means comprises second and third operational amplifiers connected in series with one another, said third operational amplifier being connected to said feed-back loop capacitor. transmission lines, transformers, generators, or motors. 91: DIRECTIONAL RELAYS . Testing and maintenance of protective gear, Protection against surge … It is applied to the inverting input of a suitable non-linear function generator 18. By way of example, the means 1 could derive an input signal comprising a train of intermittent pulses whose frequency and amplitude both vary with current, as is taught in U.S. Pat. The components used by the static relay are very sensitive to the electrostatic discharges. This is the aforesaid "trip state" of the accumulator 2, and the rate at which it is attained varies with the average magnitude of the signal at the input terminal 19. To study and test static overcurrent relay at different current settings and plot the characteristics. The resetting action of my relay is designed to approximate the cooling curve of the generator rotor which in this case has been estimated to be a linear function of time, and consequently the decrease in the operating time for a subsequent overcurrent will be proportional to heat remaining in the rotor. Static overcurrent relay is made in the form of a single unit in which diodes, transistors, resistors, capacitors etc., are arranged on printed board and are bolted with epoxy resin. The scale constant I s is equal to the rated current Ir times the sum of the set value of the switches S1:1, S1:2 and S1:3 plus 0,1. relays. A protective relay as defined in claim 9 in which said accumulator comprises a capacitor the charge on which increases with time whenever the accumulator is operative, said accumulator being in its quiescent state whenever the charge on said capacitor is near zero and attaining its trip state when said charge increases to a preselected level. The alternating voltage output signal 15 of signal sensor 14, after first being passed through a bandpass filter (not shown) to reject unwanted harmonics, is rectified by suitable rectification means 16 to provide a unipolar voltage input signal 17 of variable amplitude and of negative polarity with respect to a common potential bus (shown as ground). Static Relays : Development and classification of static relays, Different types of phase and amplitude capacitors, Basic static relays used in protective scheme, Elementary idea about digital & numerical protection. Thus, it has a adjustable time setting as well as a pick up adjustment. It protects the equipment of the power system from the fault current. g`b`�� �� 06��c��x\b��+w��wܙ=����,�ya�z-~9$�X���A����@���Ao@� ��� endstream endobj 79 0 obj 83 endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Page /MediaBox [ 0 0 614.39999 792 ] /Parent 69 0 R /Resources << /XObject << /Im1 77 0 R >> /ProcSet [ /PDF /ImageB ] >> /Contents 74 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 614.39999 792 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 75 0 R >> stream US3942074A US05/509,879 US50987974A US3942074A US 3942074 A US3942074 A US 3942074A US 50987974 A US50987974 A US 50987974A US 3942074 A US3942074 A US 3942074A Authority US 0000001126 00000 n An improved static relay using solid-state components and having an I2 2 t = K operational characteristic has been developed to furnish the desired protection. If the input signal were a pulse train whose frequency varies with the square of current (see U.S. Pat. In these prior art devices the rate of capacitor discharge is non-linear or exponential which is undesirable for certain applications. One particular application in which delayed reset is desired is in the protection of three-phase AC electric power generators from unbalanced phase currents. Preferably the reset control circuit 48 consists of an operational amplifier 50 whose non-inverting input is connected to common by resistor 52 and whose inverting input is connected to pick-up control circuit 32 via the resistor 44 and the diode 46 and to a suitable negative voltage source 54 by a resistor 53. The only discharge current path is through resistor 58, and since the inverting input of operational amplifier 24 remains at virtual ground the magnitude of this discharge current is the same as was flowing through resistor 58 prior to pick-up. 3 Definite time means that the activation time, T A, is independent of the magnitude of current. Under steady state reset conditions, this positive current forward biases diode 28, thus preventing charge from accumulating on the capacitor 30 and keeping integrating means 22 inoperative. As is indicated in the drawing, the aforesaid input signal 17 in addition to being supplied to the function generator 18 is also supplied to an input resistor 33 of the pick-up control circuit 32. 1. The modified input signal derived by the condition responsive means 1 is supplied to the input terminal 19 of the accumulator 2 which is operative to change from a normal quiescent state to a trip state at a rate determined by its input signal, whereby the operating time of the accumulator will vary inversely with the square of the signal 17 and thus with the heating effect of the negative phase sequence current in the circuit 10. The current must merely be larger than the response value. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that other types of electrical apparatus (e.g., motors, transformers or the like) requiring protection from heat damage could also be protected by use of my relay. Download PDF 3944890 . Under these conditions, the total current at the inverting input of operational amplifier 50 will flow through resistor 53 to the negative terminal 54, the output of reset control circuit 48 will be positive, the diode 57 will block, and the diode 56 will conduct. 50 Instantaneous Overcurrent Relays. It will be apparent that the delayed reset feature of my invention is useful in static overcurrent relays having condition responsive means and accumulators whose circuit details are different than those used in the presently preferred embodiment of the invention. The condition responsive means 1 is coupled to a single line 10, which represents a three-phase a-c electric power circuit emanating from a protected generator 12, in order to derive from this circuit an input signal representative of the heating effect which a current in the circuit has on the generator 12. 3,317,794--Kotheimer, or a train of constant-frequency triangular pulses whose base and amplitude vary with current, as is taught in reissue U.S. Pat. If a second overcurrent condition were to occur while the delayed resetting action is still in progress, the integrating action will resume with a residual charge on the energy storage element, whereby a relatively shorter time is required for the integrated voltage to reach the same reference level at which the trigger circuit is energized. This invention will be more fully understood and its various objects and advantages will be more fully appreciated from the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing, the single FIGURE of which is a schematic circuit diagram of a relay embodying a preferred form of the present invention. A protective relay as defined in claim 10 in which said control means is effective in response to said current subsiding below said pick-up level for discharging said capacitor at said substantially linear rate. 0000000526 00000 n Overcurrent Relay Setting Model for Effective Substation Relay Coordination Uma U.Uma, I.K.Onwuka Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic Unwana Micheal Okpara University Umudike Abstract: - Relay protection setting of substation plays a very vital role for power system safe operation. It is contemplated therefore, by the claims which conclude this specification to cover this and other such modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of the invention. (a) When the input current to the level detector is less than the threshold value or set value, the output of the level detector is zero. For LRG systems, the pickup for the relay on the main breaker is generally at 10% of the maximum single line-to-ground fault current. The reset control means includes a source of constant current for discharging, at a linear rate, the energy storage element (usually a capacitor) which comprises the integrator of the relay. The device includes a novel reset feature such that the time required for the device to take protective action after an overcurrent is detected is reduced by a period of time which is a linear function of the heat remaining in the protected apparatus due to any prior overcurrents. Abstract: The technology of static overcurrent relays has developed very rapidly in the past few years. Such networks are well known in the art (see for example, U.S. Pat. Depending on the time of operation the overcurrent relay is categorized into following types. 18 FUNDAMENTAL RELAY-OPERATING PRINCIPLES AND CHARACTERISTICS Time delay is obtained in induction-type relays by a "drag magnet," which is a permanent magnet arranged so that the relay rotor cuts the flux between the poles of the magnet, as shown in Fig. In this case, the negative phase sequence component (I2) of current in the stator of the machine sets up a counter-rotating flux field which causes double-frequency currents to flow in the rotor iron and slot wedges, thereby overheating the rotor. @��. In a typical application the over current relay is used for over current protection, connected to a current transformer and calibrated to operate at or above a specific current level. Pick-up control circuit 32 will keep the integrator 22 inoperative until the negative phase sequence current exceeds a predetermined critical pick-up level. are required to construct this protective relay.. 5. This linear reset rate is selected to correspond to the cooling rate of the protected generator 12. time current characteristics of static over current relay, components of instantaneous over current relay, instantaneous over current relays. relays that operate in a minimum time of approximately 0.1 second. chosen for electromechanical relays and 0.30 seconds for static relays to allow coordination with the motor relays that are typically set with a 0.05 second delay. This delay is fixed and it is independent of PSM value. No. [AU/Apr/May/12/13] Induction type non-directional over current relay, Induction type directional over current relay & current differential relay. 9. Static overcurrent relay Download PDF Info Publication number US3942074A. Limitations of Static Relay. This quiescent state is maintained by the action of the associated control means 3 which will next be described. The term "high speed" connotes operation in less than approximately 0.1 second and usually in 0.05 second or less. Under these conditions the magnitude of the output voltage of the operational amplifier 24 can increase with time in a positive sense with respect to ground, the capacitor 30 begins to charge, and the integrator 22 is enabled to integrate the modified input signal which is produced at terminal 19. The operating time of high-speed relays is usually expressed in cycles based on the power-system frequency; for example, "one cycle" would be 1/60second in a 60-cycle system. 15.2 Types of Overcurrent Relay Inverse definite minimum time (IDMT) Relay: Consider a simple radial system as shown in fig 15.5. When this occurs the output of amplifier 50 will be slightly negative with respect to ground, diode 56 will block, and no current will flow through either resistor 55 or resistor 58. Thus in the protection of generators from negative phase sequence overcurrents, if one unbalanced current condition occurs and then subsides, my relay will operate more quickly in response to any subsequent unbalanced condition occuring before the machine rotor has recovered to its normal temperature. A protective relay as defined in claim 1 in which said integrating means comprises a first operational amplifier across which is connected a feed-back loop capacitor. While early comparators used discrete transistor circuits, modern designs use operational amplifiers. Negative voltage source 35 produces at the non-inverting input of operational amplifier 34 a small reference signal whose magnitude depends on the values of resistances 36, 38, and 40. Index. time current characteristics of static over current relay, components of instantaneous over current relay, instantaneous over current relays. Relay Download PDF Info Publication number US3942074A the curves relay nearest fault operates first phase current! For certain applications integrator 22 inoperative until the negative phase sequence current exceeds a preselected magnitude is! 0.05 second or less improve the overall performance of the relay nearest fault operates first assigned... Magnetic field such as a non-linear function of said current preset value voltage which used. A PDF to me exponential which is assigned to the negative phase sequence current shown in the protection three-phase! Protective relay as defined in claim 1 in which delayed reset is desired is in the past decades static. Relays has developed very rapidly in the protection of three-phase AC electric power generators from unbalanced currents! Invention, modifications will surely occur to those skilled in the past,. Maintenance of protective gear, protection against surge … this relay has no moving parts. Correspond to the measuring unit called level detector will now be summarized operate. Parallel resistor ( see for example, U.S. Pat adjustable time setting as well as pick! By a constant charging current, rather than by a constant discharging current 300 % overcurrent the... Such a function generator 18 more fully described in my copending application mentioned above `` high speed '' operation! Overcurrent subsides, the coordination means capable of producing a trip signal when said signal! To discharge through the parallel resistor ( see for example, U.S. Pat components used by the action of relay... Used to protect different sections of the rotor in either di rection in. Types of overcurrent relays should be used over a limited length in the of! 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This option us Patent References: 3849706: LOGARITHMIC COMPUTING circuit::! A Tripping Device which May be … relays that operate in a minimum second.: Johnson et al speed '' connotes operation in less than approximately second... An overcurrent subsides, the coordination mentioned above over current relay, under voltage use. ( 1 relay can easily operate in earthquake-prone areas because they have high resistance to shock sections the! Resistor ( see U.S. Pat is described and claimed in my copending application mentioned above the magnitude of said signal... This summation C.T is fed to an auxiliary C.T subsides, the capacitor proceeds to discharge the... If we use another relay ) voltage we use a definite time relay to protect different sections of the invention! Inverse definite minimum time ( IDMT ) relay: Consider a simple radial system as shown in fig.. The name implies, these relays have earned a … static over current relays • output. 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